Burning fossil fuels emits polluting agents into the air. Emission limits are set for operators of combustion facilities, which represent the highest concentrations of pollutants the operator can emit into the air.
Three boilers labeled K1, K2, and K3 are the main equipment in this process. Boiler K1 was installed in 1961, followed by boiler K2 in 1962, and boiler K3 in 1968. The total heat output of the equipment is 192 MW.
Boilers K1, K2, and K3: Boilers K1 and K2 with their heat output of 63.7 MW each and boiler K3 with its output of 64,3 MW have nearly the same parameters. The type G 65 boilers were built by ČKD – Tatra Kolín. The boiler is a, single-drum construction with natural water circulation and direct coal dust injection into the burners. It is equipped with a steam condenser, a two-stage water heater, a convection steam heater, a radiant steam heater, and an air heater. With a maximum output of 65t/h, the steam produced from the three boilers is funneled into a common pipe. Air for combustion is supplied by two ventilators. The main fuel is granulated brown coal and some biomass compounds can be added to the combustion mix (i.e. flax or hemp briquettes and other S2 and S1 biomass products). Light heating oil is used as a stabilizing fuel with pressure-spray burners.
Exhaust is led into a common flue used for all three boilers.
The following are the emission limits for boilers K1, K2, and K3 according to the valid integrated permits:
*NOx – Nitrogen oxides expressed as nitrogen dioxide, TOC – Total organic carbon, Cl – Gaseous inorganic chlorine compounds expressed as hydrogen chloride, F – Gaseous inorganic fluorine compounds expressed as hydrogen fluoride, Cd – Cadmium and its compounds expressed as cadmium, Hg – Mercury and its compounds expressed as mercury, Pb - Lead and its compounds expressed as lead, As – Arsenic and its compounds expressed as arsenic, PCDD/PCDF - Polychlorinated dibenzo-para-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans, PCB – Polychlorinated biphenyls, PAH – Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons** The interval between measurements is not shorter than 3 months *** Not earlier than 6 months from the previous measurement
Emissions are constantly monitored by a measuring station in the flue of the three boilers as stipulated by air pollution legislation. The accuracy of measurements must be checked annually by an accredited lab and presented to the state administration. All measured values are processed and evaluated by the Elidis system, which monitors compliance with emission norms, calculates drift, and observes other required values.
Since 2008, Teplárna Planá has been included in the National Plan to Lower Emissions and must meet emission limits, e.g. maximum emission levels in tons per year. All the limits were met in 2008, 2009, and 2010.
The plant takes running water from the Lužnice River into the treatment center, where it is filtered into operational water, water used for technical processes, and drinking water for use by the plant and other users. The following emission limits are set for waste water returned to the Lužnice River:
Maximum waste water emission levels:
Average 11,2 l/sec.
Type of waste water released into the river: Industrial waste water Category according to the OKEČ classification of industries: 40.30 – Production and distribution of heat energy
The following emission limits are set for waste water released into the sewage system for the use of the municipalities of Tábor, Sezimovo Ústí and Planá nad Lužnicí:
Care for water is regulated, which is reflected in operational documentation. Using river water and releasing waste water is part of the IPPC integrated permit. Povodí Vltavy závod Horní Vltava is the contracted partner for the intake of river water and release of waste water. The contracted partner for waste water released into the sewage system is ČEVAK a.s.
Initiatives that lower the amount of solid waste created and that focus on the recycling of waste have been implemented at the facility.The waste that is not recycled is responsibly disposed.
Waste vs. Secondary Energy Products
The burning of coal creates ash and gravel, also known as secondary energy products. Ash was certified in the past as a product used in cement and is now used as part of re-cultivation projects.
Waste from boilers K1, K2, and K3 are cleaned by electrostatic separators: EO 1 for boiler K1 was installed in 1989, EO 2 for boiler K2 was installed in 1990, the same year as EO 3 for boiler K3. The effectiveness of the separators is about 99.7 %. The separators are comprised of a system of settling and shaking electrodes, a turnstile receptacle, an ash container, and an air supply system for aerating the ash in the container. A smoke ventilator funnels smoke into the flue. Ash is shaken from the electrodes into the lower part of the separator and transferred into the container (280m3) by the turnstile. Ash from the separators is then transported into the three ash silos. The ash is removed daily in tankers (dry) or closed transports (damp). Gravel is concentrated into two silos and then loaded onto vehicles. The loading area is covered and the gravel is transferred through dump sleeves.
Production of Secondary Energy Products in Tons
The disposal of dangerous chemicals is directed by internal regulations determined by valid legislation. Employees have safety lists and rules for the disposal of chemical compounds classified as dangerous to people and the environment on-site.
Employees receive the appropriate tools and protective equipment, as well as regular training for the disposal of dangerous chemical compounds.
Note: Experts have hailed the application of the European Parliament and Council Directive 1907/2006 on the registration, evaluation, authorization, and restriction of chemicals, or REACH, which took effect on June 1, 2007. This directive is valid in the Czech Republic as the country is a member of the EU. The goals of REACH are:
The proper disposal of chemicals is part of the prevention of serious accidents that can be caused by dangerous chemical compounds. The risk of an accident is evaluated on the basis of the character and amount of dangerous chemical compounds stored in a given facility. According to the criteria, facilities are divided into accident groups. Teplárna Planá has not been placed into any group.
In the case of accidental contaminated water leaks, Teplárna Planá is obligated to proceed according to the approved Accident Plan, which was developed and presented as part of the process of receiving the integrated permit.
Information about all malfunctions/accidents that can affect the environment must be evaluated and measures must be taken to avoid future or related accidents in the future.
Emergency dumps are tested every five years.
Information about all malfunctions and accidents with effects on air, water, or groundwater must be collected, including:
Every malfunction/accident with an effect on the environment must be reported to the regional administration within 5 days.
As a responsible entity, Teplárna Planá strives to prevent serious accidents that could be caused by fires, natural disasters, or operational errors. Besides the negative effects on the environment and public health, the regular delivery of heat and electricity could be threatened as a result of an accident. Teplárna Planá has an accident plan for avoiding and solving states of emergency in the production of electricity and heat. This plan includes the descriptions and arrangement of heat supply systems, enumerates the powers and obligations of managers, describes the various possible causes of a state of emergency and possible reactions, the gradual reduction of heat delivered, how to take equipment offline, brining supply back online, contacting employees and clients, and the activities of operational personnel and management in the case of a state of emergency.
One of the legal obligations stipulated in the water protection law is an emergency plan for facilities that use materials that could threaten the quality of water. The content of this plan is laid out in the regulations issued with the law on water protection. It includes chemicals in use at the plant and their characteristics, descriptions of equipment, the causes of accidents, accident and damage removal procedures, accident reporting procedures, contacts for employees and organs active in cleaning-up accidents, and the obligations and powers of management.
Employees are regularly trained on the above-mentioned documents and the basics of accident prevention.
Law 76/2002 Sb., regarding integrated prevention necessitated certification through the acquisition of an integrated permit (IP) by October 30, 2007. This permit integrates and replaces most permits associated with environmental protection, especially in the area of protecting air quality, waste disposal, caring for water, lowering noise pollution, and preventing accidents.
Since 2005, polluting agents must be cataloged in the integrated pollution registry, which is a database that includes information about emissions and the transfer of dangerous compounds that pollute the environment.
In 2007, Teplárna Planá implemented an environmental management system (EMS) and a safety management system (SMS).
EMS is a systematic approach to protecting the environment in all aspects of business whereby the facility incorporates environmental protection into its business strategy and regular operations. Implementing the system influences the organizational structure, methods of assigning responsibilities, technological procedures, processes, and resources for setting and implementing environmental policies. EMS is an inseparable part of managing the business; it contributes to the economic growth and prosperity of the business while focusing on activities, products, and services that have had, have, or may influence the environment. The goal is to protect natural resources and lower consumption, decrease the amount of pollutants released into the atmosphere, lower the risks associated with environmental accidents, and focus on the protection of employee and public health.
EMS is the most widespread method an organization can use to declare that it protects the environment in its activities and effects on the environment are taken into account when it provides its goods and services.
EMS is a voluntary tool used to protect the environment. It motivates an organization to take a pro-active and responsible approach to improving environmental productivity above and beyond its basic legal obligations. It was created by the European Union with the goal of discovering and monitoring an organization’s effect on the environment and publishing the information in individual environmental statements.
The EMS was implemented according to ISO 14001, published in 1996 by the ISO (International Organization for Standardization) and serves to certify an organization by a third party. It can be used in both private and public organizations.
By implementing an EMS, an organization expresses its co-responsibility for the state of the environment, its efforts to improve it, and its acceptance of sustainable development. The ISO 14001 norm works on the basis of volunteerism, which means that it is up to the management of an organization whether it will implement the system and proceed in concert with its standards.
OHSAS 18001 is an international standard for workplace safety (BOZP).
OHSAS 18001 is a document used to evaluate workplace safety policies, helping organizations protect their employees from risks while at the workplace. It was issued as an answer to demands for an international norm that would be used as a foundation for evaluation and certification.
Teplárna Planá strives to limit workplace risks and eliminate accidents involving employees and the employees of suppliers.